2023年 1月 17日 作者 gong2022 0



Ⅰ. Give a brief explanation to each of the following literary terms. (15 points)

1. Free verse

【答案】Free verse is a term describing various styles of poetry that are written without using a strict rhyme scheme, but still recognizable as poetry by virtue of complex patterns of one sort or another that readers will perceive to be part of a coherent whole. Walt Whitman is a representative who employed free verse successfully.查看答案

2. Plot

【答案】In literature, a plot is all the events in a story particularly rendered towards the achievement of some particular artistic or emotional effect. In other words, it’s what mostly happened in the story or novel or what the story’s general theme is based on, such as the mood, characters, setting, and conflicts occurring in a story.查看答案

3. Tragedy

【答案】A tragedy is a story that presents courageous individuals who confront powerful forces within or outside themselves with a dignity that reveals the breadth and depth of the human spirit in the face of failure, defeat, and even death.

Tragedies recount an individual’s downfall; they usually begin high and end low. Shakespeare is known for his tragedies, including Macbeth, King Lear, Othello, and Hamlet.查看答案

4. “Stream of Consciousness” novel

【答案】A “stream of consciousness” novel attempts to depict the flow of inner experience of the characters. Those novels break through the bounds of time and space, and mingle the thoughts, feelings, and sense impressions of characters at a specific time. Famous “stream of consciousness” novelists include James Joyce, Virginia Woolf and William Faulkner.查看答案

5. Imagism

【答案】Imagism is a poetic movement that flourished in the U.S. and Britain between 1909 and 1917. The movement was led by the American poets Ezra Pound and, later, Amy Lowell. The imagist poets placed stressed precision in the choice of words, freedom in the choice of subject matter and form and the use of colloquial language.

Notable collections of imagist poetry are Des Imagistes: An Anthology, compiled by Pound, and the three anthologies compiled by Amy Lowell, all under the title Some Imagist Poets.查看答案

Ⅱ. Choose the right answer to complete each of the statement below. (10 points)

1. The King James Bible _____.

A. was written by King James Ⅰ

B. was directed by James Ⅰ

C. was translated under the order of James Ⅰ

D. was translated by King James Ⅰ



2. In his novel, Robinson Crusoe, Defoe eulogizes the hero of the _____.

A. aristocratic class

B. enterprising landlords

C. rising bourgeoisie

D. hard-working people


3. Best known for his masterpiece The Faerie Queene, _____ is regarded as the “poet’s poet”.

A. John Donne

B. William Shakespeare

C. Edmund Spenser

D. Philip Sidney


4. Which of the following is not written by John Milton?

A. Lycidas

B. Paradise Lost

C. Areopagitica

D. The New Atlantis


【解析】The New Atlantis(《新亚特兰蒂斯》或《新大西岛》)的作者是Francis Bacon(弗朗西斯·培根),其余选项都是弥尔顿的作品。

5. Tess of the D’Urbervilles is a novel written by _____.

A. Thomas Hardy

B. Charles Dickens

C. D.H. Lawrence

D. George Eliot



6. Which of the following novels is a good illustration of the “Roaring 20s” and hence serves as a “cultural-history allegory” for the America?

A. Farewell to Arms

B. The Great Gatsby

C. A Lost Lady

D. The Portrait of a Young Lady



7. Among the following writers, _____ is best known for his sensitive depiction of the American small-town life.


Ⅰ. Historical Background(历史背景)

(1) The earliest settlers of the British Isles were the Celts, who migrated to the British Isles about 600 B.C.


(2) From 55 B.C. to 407 A.D. the British Isles were under the rule of the Roman Empire.


(3) About 450 A.D., waves of the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes invaded the British Isles. They settled in England, and drove the Celts into Wales, Scotland, and Ireland.


(4) It was around 500 A.D., in the struggle against Cerdic, the founder of the kingdom of Wessex, that the Celtic King Arthur, a legendary figure, is said to have acquired his fame.


(5) Beginning from the later part of the 8th century, the Danes, or the Vikings, came to invade England, at first, along the eastern coast, but later they threatened to overrun the whole country.


(6) In the second half of the 9th century King Alfred, the Great of Wessex (849~899) led the Anglo-Saxon kings to defeat the invaders by uniting their forces.


(7) In the early 11th century all England was conquered by the Danes for 23 years. Then the Danes were expelled, but in l066 the Normans came from Normandy in northern France to attack England under the leadership of the Duke of Normandy who claimed the English throne.


Ⅱ. Northumbrian School and Wessex literature(诺森伯兰流派和西萨克斯文学)

There were two highlights in the development of the Anglo-Saxon literature.


(1) The first was the Northumbrian School. Its center was the monasteries and abbeys in the kingdom of Northumbria. Related with this school was Caedmon who lived in the 7th century and who turned the stories in the Bible into verse form.

Another well-known figure of the Northumbrian School was the Venerable Bede (673~735), a monk who wrote in Latin and whose work. The Ecclesiastical History of English People earned for him the title of “Father of English History”.


(2) In 871 Alfred became king of Wessex. His contributions to English literature are threefold. First, a number of Latin books of educative value were translated into West Saxon dialect. It is said that King Alfred himself translated the history by Bede.

Secondly, Alfred was responsible for the launching of The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. It began with the story of Caesar’s conquest and annually recorded important events until 1154. It is an important history book as well as a piece of literary work. Alfred’s third contribution is that he created a style of Anglo-Saxon prose which was not obscure.


Ⅲ. Anglo-Saxon poetry(盎格鲁-撒克逊诗歌)

Some 30, 000 lines of Anglo-Saxon poetry have survived. There are a long epic poetry Beowulf, a number of religious poems and heroic poem, and some elegies. The earliest is Widsith and the last is Maldon, a poem about the battle of Maldon. The most famous Anglo-Saxon poem is Beowulf.


IV. Beowulf(《贝奥武甫》)

(1) About the Poem(关于诗歌)

It was probably written down in the 8th century through the manuscript of the poem preserved today dates back to the10th century and was written in the Wessex dialect. The poem contains altogether3, 183 lines and the story in it is based on partly historical and partly legendary materials, brought over by the Anglo-Saxons from their original homes.


(2) Synopsis(故事梗概)

The epic begins with a brief account of Danish kings down to Hrothgar who builds a splendid hall called Heorot.

A monster named Grendel is enraged at the sound of merrymaking which nightly comes from the hall and disturbs his peace. He comes out of the lair at the bottom of the sea and goes to the hall each night and devours warriors. This has been going on for twelve years.

Beowulf, nephew to King Hygelac of the Geats, hears of Grendel and sails with fourteen companions to lend help to Hrothgar. The Danish king receives and entertains the visitors and Beowulf boasts of his past exploits and declares his determination to conquer or die.

Grendel comes at night and eats up one of Beowulf’s companions. Then a terrible combat follows and Beowulf finally wins by tearing one arm and a shoulder off the monster who flees mortally wounded. Hrothgar rewards the hero with rich gifts.


At night Grendel’s mother comes to avenge her son and carries off Hrothgar’s favourite aeschere. Beowulf is sent for and he sets out with his companions to seek for the sea-monster. He plunges into a pool and reaches a cave beneath the sea.

There he fights with Grendel’s mother and eventually succeeds in killing her with a magic sword found hanging in the cave. He returns with the heads of two monsters and is welcomed and further rewarded by Hrothgar.

Then he returns to the Geats. In the following year King Hygelac dies and his son succeeds as king but is soon killed in battle with the Swedes. Beowulf is chosen king and rules wisely and well for fifty years.


Then a runaway slave robs part of a hoard of hidden treasure guarded by a dragon and the latter is enraged and ravages the land with fiery breath. Beowulf, now an aged king, resolves to fight the dragon himself.

He goes there with twelve companions. The old king orders his men to wait outside while he himself goes down to the mound of treasure. There the aged king fights bravely against the dragon but the sword fails him and he is in danger.

One of the companions, Wiglaf, rushes down to help and wounds the monster and then Beowulf kills it with a knife but is himself mortally wounded. He gives his last orders about his own funeral as he dies. Wiglaf sends a messenger to announce the king’s death and the people visit the scene of battle and carry away the treasure.

They throw the dragon into the sea and build a funeral pyre to bum Beowulf’s body. The poem ends with the people lamenting Beowulf’s death and praising him as a great and good king.